A Spectrum Of Neuropathological Changes Following Repetitive Brain Trauma In Athletes And Military Personnel



Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a brain condition associated with repeated blows to the head. It's possible that people with CTE may show signs of another neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) — also known as Lou Gehrig's disease — Parkinson's disease or frontotemporal lobar degeneration — also known as frontotemporal dementia.

There is much in boxing to interest a practicing neurologist, and special attention should be focused upon (1) the phenomenon of groggy states as occurring during or after a contest, and (2) the condition known as traumatic progressive encephalopathy (or punch-drunkenness).

Like other Drosophila models that have proven valuable at deciphering human neurodegenerative disorders9,20, it is anticipated that the ongoing detailed characterization of the model in terms of neuronal loss, tau hyperphosphorylation, TDP-43 proteinopathy, and neuroinflammatory response to the inflicted mTBI will generate important mechanistic insights into CTE disease processes and will help to answer some of the critical questions in the field.

Existing animal models, such as the fluid percussion injury model, the blast TBI model, the weight-drop model, and the closed-head injury model, have been modified in an attempt to develop models that replicate the clinical features of repeated mild TBI (these models were recently reviewed by Xiong and colleagues 55 ). Promising results in mice, rats, and swine indicate that repeated mild head traumas, compared with single head traumas, are associated with long-term behavioral impairments, neuroinflammation, cortical neuron loss, white matter deficits, and overall poorer outcomes.

However, we believe that a robust CTE model should satisfy the following three requirements: (1) the impact must be directly applied to a head that has an intact scalp and skull protection; (2) the head should not be immobilized during impact exposure so that rapid acceleration-deceleration and rotational and linear head movements are allowed; and (3) the experimental design should include both single and repetitive regimes, and the impact consequences should be mild in nature, without inflicting visible damage, such as tissue edema, contusion, or frank hemorrhage.

That is because there is an overwhelming amount of media attention paid to CTE these days after some medical research has suggested that CTE is the result of concussions or repeated hits to the heads of athletes, namely football players. Most CTE studies characterize head injury exposure simply as exposure to sport or occupation (e.g., football, boxing) without including data describing head injury frequency, severity, or the time elapsed between injuries.

However, CTE should be considered in the presence of a neurological and psychiatric decline in a previously healthy individual, in particular, if there is a history of head trauma. Currently, the best therapies are prevention of the initial trauma and continued public education regarding proper detection and management of minor traumatic head injuries.

It is important to note that not all players develop CTe despite long years of playing football. Are there changes other than CTE that can develop with repetitive brain trauma? In most instances, the clinical symptoms of the disease begin after a long period of latency ranging from several years to several decades.

(ESI), which is focused on the discovery of exosomal biomarkers to diagnose and monitor cancer and neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE). In the first part of their study, the researchers examined four postmortem brains from teenage athletes who had sustained closed-head impact injuries 1, 2, 10 and 128 days prior to death.

There's still some debate about how widespread chronic traumatic encephalopathy is and how it should be diagnosed. Somewhat concerning are the studies suggesting protein templating with trans-synaptic transmission 44 and the incorporation of the tauopathies in the lexicon of prion (or prion-like) diseases.

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a condition that may result from head injuries, especially in athletes of contact sports like boxing or football. One study of professional Italian soccer players showed an increased risk of ALS, 90 although selection bias and possible confounding influences of dietary and environmental factors Settlement have been raised.

Get a thorough, expert overview of the many key facets of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) with this concise, practical resource by Drs. We believe CTE is caused by repetitive brain trauma. The brains of people with CTE show shrinkage overall, and in specific areas like the medial temporal lobe, which plays a role in memory.

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